Kangangamashumi eminyaka, ibiyeyona mingcipheko ibalulekileyo yekhemikhali eSilicon Valley - amawaka eeponti zegesi yeklorini, egcinwe kwiimoto zikaloliwe kwindawo yokucoca ilindle laseSan Jose eAlviso, kwaye isetyenziswa yonke imihla ukubulala iintsholongwane kumanzi amdaka abantu abazizigidi ezisisi-1.4. .



Irhasi ibaluleke kakhulu ekupheliseni iintsholongwane ezinokubangela ikholera, isifo setyphoid, isifo segazi kunye nezinye izifo. Kodwa ingozi enkulu inokubulala abasebenzi bezityalo kwaye inyanzelise abantu ukuba baphume kwindawo yeemayile ezintlanu eMantla eSan Jose naseMilpitas elikhaya labantu abangama-219,000.

Ngeveki ezayo, umngcipheko uya kube uphelile.





Isixeko sisebenzisa irhasi yokugqibela kwaye siza kuyibuyisela ngeklorini elulwelo, efana nebleach, njengenxalenye yophuculo lwe-10.8 yezigidi zeerandi kwisixhobo sokubulala iintsholongwane kwindawo yogutyulo.

Sihlala sizama ukunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kweekhemikhali eziyityhefu, utshilo uJon Newby, usekela mlawuli wemisebenzi yezityalo kunye nokugcinwa. Inceda uluntu. Kulula ukusebenza nayo. Yaye imimiselo yayisiba ngqongqo ngakumbi.



ISan Jose yeyona nto yamva nje phakathi koluhlu olukhulayo lwezixeko ezikhulu zase-US zokukhupha irhasi yeklorini ukuze kusetyenziswe ezinye iindlela ezikhuselekileyo kwiindawo zokucocwa kwamanzi amdaka. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, i-Denver, i-Salt Lake, i-New Orleans, i-Indianapolis kunye nabanye baye bajika iphepha, ngokuyinxenye ngenxa yeenkxalabo zokhuseleko emva kwe-11 Septemba 2001, ukuhlaselwa kwamaphekula.

Kukho amatyala amakhulu anokubakho abandakanyekayo ekusebenziseni iimoto zikaloliwe zegesi yeklorini, utshilo uPaul Orum, owulandele ngokusondeleyo lo mbandela kwiZiko lenkqubela phambili yaseMelika, iWashington, DC, iqela elikhuthaza imithetho engqongqo yokhuseleko lweekhemikhali.



Amakhulu amaziko aguquliwe. Abantu abasebenza malunga neekhemikhali bavuya kakhulu kukuba izinto eziyingozi kakhulu ziphelile.

Ikhemikhali emangalisayo



Iingozi zinqabile, kodwa zinokubulala.

NgoJanuwari 2005, oololiwe ababini bangqubana eGraniteville, S.C., bakhupha ilifu legesi ye chlorine ngo-2:30 a.m. elabulala abantu abasithoba laza lathumela abangaphezu kwama-350 esibhedlele. Iingozi ezifanayo zikaloliwe ezibandakanya iklorine zabulala abantu abasibhozo eYoungstown, Fla., ngowe-1978; abantu abali-17 eMontanas, eMexico, ngowe-1981; kunye nabantu abathathu kufuphi neSan Antonio, eTexas, ngo-2004.



Ukongeza iklorini kumanzi okusela, eyaqala e-US ngo-1908 eNew Jersey, ihlala inconywa njengenye yenkqubela phambili yezempilo yoluntu kwinkulungwane yama-20. Kwaphela kodwa kwaphela i-typhoid, isisu segazi, ikholera nezinye izifo ezibangelwa ngamanzi nezathi ngenkulungwane ye-19 zabulala amawaka abantu eUnited States naseYurophu.

Kodwa imichiza, eyenza igesi emthubi-luhlaza, inetyhefu kakhulu. IJamani yazisa njengesixhobo sethafa ledabi kwiMfazwe Yehlabathi I. Ukuba sesichengeni esiphakathi kunokubangela ukuphefumla okukrakra kunye nokutshisa kwamehlo. Ukuvezwa okubonakalayo kunokubangela umonakalo wemiphunga okanye ukufa.

Ukwalathisa ukhenketho kwindawo yokucoca amanzi amdaka eSan Jose kwiveki ephelileyo, uNewby waphawula ukuba akuzange kubekho ngozi kwiminyaka engama-40 apho isixeko sasebenzisa igesi yeklorini. Isityalo sirhangqwe ngocingo oluhlabayo, kwaye senza uqheliso oluqhelekileyo olungxamisekileyo. Abasebenzi bagcina iNqanaba A iisuti zezinto ezinobungozi esandleni - olona hlobo lukhuselayo, kunye neetanki ze-oxygen. Imibhobho kukho i-double-walled, ifakwe i-sensors zenyikima kunye nezixhobo ezizenzekelayo zokuvala.

Nangona bengazange bajongane nemiphumo yokuvuza, iilebhile zokhuseleko lwe-skull kunye ne-crossbones kwiimoto zikaloliwe zazisisikhumbuzo sengozi enokwenzeka.

Sasicinga ngalo lonke ixesha, utshilo uNewby.

Phakathi kwezixeko zaseCalifornia, iSan Jose sele isemva kwexesha kumdlalo wokuphelisa ukusetyenziswa kwegesi yeklorini. I-San Francisco, i-Oakland kunye ne-Los Angeles sele bekwenzile oko kwiindawo zabo zokucocwa kwamanzi amdaka.

Kodwa ngenxa yokuba isityalo sikaSan Jose, esakhiwe ngo-1956, siphakathi kwezona zikhulu zaseNtshona, ngokwemigangatho yoshishino ukutshintsha kwayo kuthathwa njengento ebalulekileyo.

Umzi-mveliso kunye nabasebenzi bawo abangama-200 balungisa amanzi amdaka awaneleyo yonke imihla ukusuka kwizindlu zangasese, iishawari, iidreyini kunye neesinki eSan Jose, eSanta Clara nakwezinye izixeko zaseSouth Bay ukuze bazalise amachibi okuqubha e-Olimpiki ali-166.

Nangona malunga nesibini kwisithathu sezityalo zamanzi amdaka e-US ziye zatshintshela kulwelo lweklorine okanye unyango lwe-ultraviolet, ezinye izixeko ezikuMntla California azikakabikho.

Ngokutsho kwe-Arhente yoKhuseleko lweNdalo yase-US, izityalo ze-69 zamanzi amdaka eCalifornia zisasebenzisa igesi ye-chlorine, kuquka i-Sunnyvale, i-Sacramento, i-Carmel, i-Tracy kunye ne-Santa Rosa.

Akukho mthetho we-federal ofuna ukukhutshwa. Enyanisweni, umthetho we-2006 osayinwe nguMongameli uGeorge W. Bush ofuna ukhuseleko olungqongqo kwizityalo zekhemikhali eziqulethe izithuba ezixolelwe ukucocwa kwamanzi amdaka kunye nezityalo zamanzi okusela. Ushishino lweekhemikhali lulwe neenzame zikaMongameli uBarack Obama weSebe lezoKhuseleko lwaseKhaya ukuba aphinde abhale umthetho.

Irhasi xa ithelekiswa nolwelo

Ezinye iingcali ziqaphela ukuba ngelixa igesi yechlorine iyingozi kakhulu, ukuvalwa ngokupheleleyo kunokubangela iingxaki kuba kunokongeza amawaka eehambo zelori zihambisa i-chlorine engamanzi, kunokubakho ukunqongophala, kwaye i-chlorine yolwelo-iphindwe kabini ukuya kathathu igxininiswe njengebleach kubeka umngcipheko othile.

Itanki yegesi yeklorini yenza ilifu elikhulu lerhasi enokuthi abantu bayiphefumle, yatsho isazi ngemichiza yezinto eziphilayo uBruce Macler, kunye ne-U.S. EPA eSan Francisco. Inetyhefu. Ukuba ubuhlanjwe ngeblitshi ungafa kanye ngokuqinisekileyo, kodwa iqondo lomngcipheko liphezulu ngegesi. Akukho mntu wenza i-cavalier kunye nomnye wabo.

Isityalo se-Sunnyvale, esihlala kwi-Avenue yase-Borregas malunga nesiqingatha semayile ukusuka kwikomkhulu le-Lockheed Martin, i-Yahoo kunye ne-Juniper Networks, isebenzisa igesi ye-chlorine encinci kakhulu kunesityalo saseSan Jose kwaye ihanjiswe kwiilori, kungekhona iimoto zikaloliwe.

I-Sunnyvale isebenza ukuyibuyisela ngolwelo lweklorini. Isixhobo esitsha kufuneka sibekhona ngo-2014, utshilo uJohn Stufflebean, umlawuli weenkonzo zendalo esingqongileyo waseSunnyvale.

Ndiyikhawulezisile loo projekthi ukuze ndizame ukuyenza ngokukhawuleza, utshilo.

U-Stufflebean, owathi de kwaba leli hlotyeni wayengumlawuli wendalo engqongileyo waseSan Jose, waphawula ukuba iSunnyvale igqibile ukuphelisa enye irhasi eyingozi kumzi-mveliso wayo wamanzi amdaka, i-sulphur dioxide, esetyenziselwa ukwenza i-chlorine kumanzi amdaka ngaphambi kokuba amanzi athunyelwe echwebeni, ngoko ayifuni. Ingonakalisi izilwanyana zasendle.

I-San Jose ikwaphelisa loo khemikhali, ngokuthanda i-sodium bisulfite enobungozi, kodwa umsebenzi awuyi kugqitywa kude kube yintwasahlobo ezayo.

Iindleko zizonke zezi khemikhali zimbini zintsha: i-1.2 yezigidi zeedola ngonyaka eSan Jose, malunga nokuphinda kabini inkqubo endala.

Umsebenzi wonke waseSan Jose ubeneengxaki ezithile. Yayicwangciselwe ukugqitywa ngoDisemba ka-2009, kodwa yawa ngenxa yobusika obunethayo kunye nokonakala kwezixhobo ezitsha zombane. Ngoku igqityiwe ubukhulu becala, uNewby uthe unento enye encinci anokuzikhathaza ngayo.

Ewe, watsho encumile. Ndiza kulala ngcono.

Qhagamshelana noPaul Rogers kwi-408-920-5045.